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Overall efficiency by using nanofluid, was higher than by base fluid. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. In Hoffmann (2006), the relative growth in PV until 2020 will be covered by thin film technologies, whereas up to 2030 new technologies such as high efficiency Dye and Organic technologies will take the lead. As with CdTe solar cells, the abundance of the elements In and Se appears low, but for a thin-film photovoltaic, where each module only needs a few grams of material, the total amount needed is not huge. Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) is of much intrigue among all photovoltaic (PV) technologies because it replaces the expensive PV cell material with cheaper optical concentrators and occupies less land area as compared with conventional PV technology. Construction of Photovoltaic Cell. These new technologies are termed as third generation technologies and will use hot electron, quantum well, intermediate band gap structure and nanostructure technologies. (2002) and Goetzberger and Hebling (2000), for the future of solar energy materials three scenarios are envisioned: Mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon is relatively mature but several studies have shown that it still has a high cost reduction potential; fifty percent of the cost of a silicon module is due to the cost of processed silicon wafers. are discussed. Hybrid PV/T systems with nanofluid used as filter & absorber, Ag & Au, 5 nm, 0.00019 & 0.00025 vol%. Shikshita Jain, ... S.K. [325] synthesized aluminium (Al) and zinc (Zn) co-doped CuInS2 NPs by the method of cation exchange. Dieser wurde daraufhin weiter erforscht, wobei insbesondere Albert Einstein mit seiner 1905 erschienenen Arbeit zur Lichtquantentheorie … Vol. Finally, some recommendations are made for the future development of CPV-TEG systems. The IEA World Energy Outlook uses a scenario-based approach to develop projections for global energy demand, supply, and energy sector transformation. fraction (0.5, 1, 2%) on optical filtration property of SiO2-water nanofluids. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research … Graphene, on the other hand, can be applied as a collector to the front surface, and will serve to transmit much more of the light without shadowing, while still capturing and conducting the charge coming out of the absorption region. fraction & electrolyte molar conc. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research … Various high efficiency PV cells are now being developed such as PERC cells, N-type bifacial cells, IBC cells, HJT cells and TOPCON cells (Solar, 2016). However, generally used NPs for high performance LSCs comprised of toxic metals like cadmium and lead which are not good for/or posed serious impacts on environment as well as human health. Optical filter properties were not the best leading to lower PV-efficiency due to some imperfections but overall efficiency was higher than conventional-PV cells. Ultra-high efficiency cells and modules: these are known as third generation PV cells and will utilize advanced concepts of solid-state matter physics such as hot electrons, multiple quantum wells, intermediate band gap structures and nanostructures. A particular type of organic material used in solar cells is worth discussing because of the particularly high research interest in it: graphene. These projections underline how controlling PV module degradation, improving PV module reliability, and extending PV power plant lifetimes are critically important to industry, society, and the world. Learn about solar cells, the IV curve, methods of testing solar cell … The increase can be by as much as 20% in winter and by as much as 50% in summer . They integrated photovoltaics used NPs (CuInS2/ZnS) for LSCs application as these can be controlled to exhibit less reabsorption of emitted photons and large stokes shift, which could be beneficial for constructing integrated photovoltaics. The semiconductor materials like arsenide, indium, cadmium, silicon, selenium and gallium are used for making the PV cells. (0, 22.3, 44.6, 89.2 ppm) due to absorption of low-efficient solar radiation band. When used for optical filtration in hybrid PV/T, results stated that MF values of ENFs for Si & InGaP PV-cells were higher than core/shell nanoparticle filter by 0.029 & 0.034 respectively. Weber et al. The hybrid photovoltaic … They’re made either by vapour deposition, or by “selenising” copper-indium films. when compared to system without filter. Also for 2017, the PV module global production capacity was estimated to be on the order of 80–85 GW of PV modules annually [83], and this was updated in 2018 to have actually been 94–100 GW in 2017 and 105–115 GW of PV cells and modules produced in 2018 [84]. Summary of work proposed by different researchers for PV cooling using nanofluid as Spectral Filter. Sridhar Sripadmanabhan Indira, ... Suriati Paiman, in Solar Energy, 2020. Roger H. French, ... Laura S. Bruckman, in Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules, 2019. High-Efficiency Crystalline Photovoltaics. The experts suggested a fairly uniform low portion should be allocated to Concentrating PV and Third Generation PV. Solar cells can be constructed from brittle crystalline structures (Si, GaAs) or as flexible thin-film cells (Si, CdTe, CIGS). The first technology is ribbon Si which was listed because it is more efficient than conventional wafer based Si technologies, despite it being one of the most recent Si-based technologies. Nanoparticle based filter required smaller thickness and could be easily tuned. Perovskites already use some organic elements (which include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen), but there are other solar cells in development that fall purely on the organic side of the chemistry spectrum. Usually they have a band gap around 2 eV, which isn’t ideal for solar absorption. Image Source: The different PV cell characteristics (efficiency, lifetime, I-V curve) depend on the material used. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. The numerical simulation and experimental studies on various configurations of hybrid CPV-TEG systems are summarized and outlined in this review. By taking into account that the inputs that are needed for PV-cell material manufacturing and the energy produced during PV-system phase of usage, it can be seen that PVs show interest from a Life-cycle assessment (LCA)/environmental point of view. The specific vibrations we discuss here are phonons – quantized lattice vibrations. The cost per watt is one of the bottom line metrics in the energy industry. Consider the figure below shows the constructions of the silicon photovoltaic cell. For Si PV-cell, these were 6.2 & 24.4% respectively at C = 100 & vol% = 1.5. We’ve talked a little about some innovative design solutions that researchers have used to try and optimize solar cells, but the other half of the equation is changing the material being used. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In this work, SiO2 NPs of different size and amount were inserted into CuInS2/ZnS NPs based LSCs and observed scattering effect due to insertion of SiO2 NPs. 88 pieces of small cells (18 × 10 mm) connected in series, Hybrid PV/T with nanofluid filter pasted on Al tubes before poly-Si cells. Why would we want to do this? After 2030, PV cell efficiency will increase to reach 30–50%, allowing very efficient use of the available area (PV-TRAC, 2005). Hassani et al. These solutions help our customers become … ... materials in hybrid cell s are used as the acceptor and electro n . In addition, if the global efforts to meet the sustainable development goals and climate change challenges advance, then it is relatively straightforward to continue growing the size of the PV module manufacturing industry, and further reducing the costs of PV modules and PV generated electricity [85]. Conventionally, LSCs usually composed of optical waveguide slab with enclosed emissive species conjugated with PV cells. These materials are called semiconductors. (2002) and Goetzberger and Hebling (2000), Recent advancements in PV cooling and efficiency enhancement integrating phase change materials based systems – A comprehensive review, Efficiency, stability, toxicity, lifetime, Si & InGaP PV-cells, dimensions, 1 × 1(m), Hybrid PV/T with 2 types of ENFs as optical filters. (2015) experimentally determined effectiveness of 2 nanofluids (Ag & Au/water) as optical filter (10 mm channel thickness) & heat transfer media in hybrid PV/T system. Saroha et al. Sunlight is free, it does not use up an irreplaceable resource, and its conversion to electricity is nonpolluting. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is made from the II-VI group elements, and has a direct band gap of 1.44 eV, making it one of the best-suited materials for photovoltaic applications. As such, we have curated a … PV-efficiency enhancements for Ag & Au/water nanofluids were 4.73 & 3.4% respectively, when compared to water-based system. Other goals are coupled with economic development such as SG9: industry, innovation, and infrastructure, SDG11: sustainable cities and communities, and SDG12: responsible production and consumption. Overall efficiency increased from 15.9 to 61.9% while PV-efficiency decreased from 15.9 to 14.7% when compared to ref-PV. Although transmittance was lower than conventional optical filters, but it needed smaller thickness in hybrid PVT system and these plasmonic nanoparticles could reduce cost significantly when used in double-pass architecture. The technology roadmap for photovoltaics is not based soley on cell materials and cell architectures though. Hjerrild et al. These materials bear his name and are known as perovskites. X, meanwhile, is a negative ion (anion) that is usually either oxygen or a halogen. fraction, filter thickness, type of base fluid, were varied for optimization. These wires shadow the front surface and decrease the overall light hitting our active area. (2013) designed and modelled nanofluid-based optical filters. Although it hasn’t yet achieved the efficiency records of monocrystalline silicon (a-Si currently sits around, It turns out that junctions of CIGS next to CIGS (called homojunctions), Of all the materials we know, copper-indium diselenide (CIS) has the, Having a heterojunction introduces many of CIGS’ main challenges, including. When light shines on a photovoltaic (PV) cell – also called a solar cell – that light may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through the cell. The concept of LSCs depends on utilization of solar radiation by using devices of large area involving minimal consumption of PV material. DeJarnette et al. In a biological photovoltaic system, electrons generated by photolysis of water are transferred to an The compounds of a material that has a photoelectric effect absorb photons of light and emit electrons. In Razykov et al. There was consensus from the experts on allocating a relatively large part of the budget to what is considered a promising and relatively stable technology like Thin-film PV. Here we will use the SD scenario results from WEO 2018 to provide a vision of where photovoltaics may be heading as the world heads to 2030. The Japanese are more optimistic, forecasting this objective to be reached by 2020. Targray solar materials and supply chain solutions are a trusted source for PV manufacturers, solar suppliers, project developers, contractors, installers and EPCs in over 50 countries. Other improvements in terms of “Balance of systems” (BOS), system reliability, maintenance and overall system performance are necessary as well. PV-efficiency declined from 20 to 12% by increasing nanoparticle conc. Hence, this work provided environment friendly LSCs based NPs for building integrated photovoltaics with high efficiency. Fig. VDE / Electrosuisse, Berlin / Fehraltorf 2010, ISBN 978-3-8007-3205-0. A photovoltaic (PV) cell, also known as “solar cell,” is a semiconductor device that generates electricity when light falls on it . Crystalline solar cells can be further classified into two categories—mono… Jin and Jing (2017) prepared 2 stable, low cost and optimized magnetic ENFs i.e. To model this complex behaviour can be very challenging, and is a topic we’ll tackle in the Data Sets & Models section. The silicon materials include single-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, and amorphous silicon. However, breakthroughs in silicon solar cells photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency seem to be unlikely, and although further development in solar cells design might further increase their efficiency, cost projections are still not favorable. In Bosetti et al. PV & overall efficiencies were 10.9 & 30% respectively, at C = 160 & vol% = 1.5. (2006b) state that to achieve the ambitious target of high PV market penetration and cost reduction, there is a need for significant PV module technology improvement. One of the questions asked the respondents to indicate what would be the optimal distribution of the current R&D budget between the different technologies considering the current status and the main barriers to cost reduction. For GaAs PV-cell with D-1 configuration, max. Solar trackers achieve this by moving PV modules to follow the sun. (2012), the authors created a questionnaire concerning the future of PV and concentrated solar power, and it was circulated to sixteen European PV experts. Alternatively, several junctions are used, or the electric potential of the junction is extended to help carriers along, as is done in p-i-n semiconductors which have an intrinsic (undoped) semiconductor layer in the middle. The price of silicon is steadily decreasing, and it’s very challenging to compete with that constantly lowering price point, especially when, as in the case of III-V semiconductors, the fabrication methods are so costly. Overall efficiency enhanced by 18.6 & 8.1% using Ag & Cu/water nanofluids respectively. 4.7 & 3.4%). Solar Materials. For those interested in more information in the alternative scenarios, we direct you to the IEA WEO reports and the UN's SDG reports and to the World Energy Model [81]. 35. Therefore it has a direct band gap, and absorbs more strongly than monocrystalline silicon. [4] conducted an LCA about crystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) and organic polymer-based PV cells). [3] presented a stydy about LCA of a BIPV system based on monocrystalline PV cells), whereas other references compare different PV technologies (for instance, Serrano-Luján et al. By far the, All in all, III-V semiconductors offer a great host of advantages over silicon as a material for photovoltaics. Maximum value was found with 0.02 wt% & 2 mm channel thickness. The new policies scenario also incorporates a number of current policy frameworks that appear likely to be enacted along with current estimates of technological progress. [5] proposed a tool which offers worldwide information about the environmental profile of PV systems, based on multicriteria assessment (the user can compare the environmental performance of a PV system with the environmental impact of the electricity mix of a certain country). While there are a wide variety of organic solar cell materials, the majority rely on organic molecules with sp2 hybridization – that is, carbon double bonds. Overall exergetic efficiency enhanced by 7% as compared to deionized water, by increasing concentration upto 40 & flow velocity upto 0.015 m/s. As you might have already figured out, photovoltaics is a huge and interesting field of research that, as we’ve said, will play a major role in humanity’s energy future. In light of the issues mentioned above, it can be noted that in the literature there are studies about different PV technologies from an LCA/environmental point of view. Currently, organo-lead perovskites are at the center of perovskite research. These dangling bonds can interfere with current flow, so often these cells are passivated with hydrogen to latch onto and fill in all the dangling bonds. What’s more is that temperature affects vibrations, which means that how good or bad silicon is at absorbing light is going to be highly, You might have guessed that this freedom to tune the band gap means that III-V semiconductors are what researchers use in developing multi-junction solar cells. In Goetzberger et al. 35). Biological photovoltaics (BPV) is an energy-generating technology which uses oxygenic photoautotrophic organisms, or fractions thereof, to harvest light energy and produce electrical power. The dramatic progress of commercial crystalline silicon photovoltaics since their development in the 1970s has included both successes and dramatic shortcomings such as those of the Carissa Plains plant. Overall efficiency decreased by using nanofluid as filter except for Ge. Even though their efficiencies may be quite different, these technologies can be divided into two types: Ultra-low cost, low-medium efficiency cells and modules: the technology closest to a transfer to pilot production is the dye-sensitised Nano-crystalline solar cell concept. It is expected that the long-term future PV technology spectrum will be very different from that of today. PV-module (100 monocrystalline cells), 1.56 × 1.56(m), PV/T system with nanofluid as optical filter & absorber. (2002) the authors put a future module upper efficiency limit (to 2060) of 42%, while in Hoffmann (2006) the authors wrote that the new concepts (Dye cell and plastic cells) will have efficiencies in the range 30–60%. To follow the advances in cell conversion efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) best research cell efficiency chart allows one to survey across all cell technologies and track the rate of improvement [10]. Image Source: In fact, photovoltaics are now in use where power lines from utility grids are either not possible or do … Moreover, Fthenakis [2] highlighted that PV technology is under a transition to a new generation of efficient and low-cost products that are based on thin films of photoactive materials. The study track focuses on the fundamental principles behind- and the application and development of- photovoltaic materials and/or devices, and systems. In Raugei and Frankl (2009), the authors list three technologies for future PV systems which are applicable for the optimistic and very optimistic scenarios mentioned above. Nevertheless, there are some situations where III-V semiconductors are the best choice for photovoltaics. We also mentioned above that there’s been so much development on monocrystalline silicon solar cells that there’s a steady trend of decreasing price, known as Swanson’s law. Hence, other materials and structures have been developed or are under development. This review article delineates various integration options of the CPV-TEG system and up-to-date developments of different configurations of hybrid CPV-TEG system including CPV-TEG with a spectral beam splitter, CPV/thermal-TEG, and CPV-TEG with phase changing materials. fraction & channel thickness, 2 nanofluids (Ag & Cu/water) were prepared. The most common material for commercial solar cell construction is Silicon (Si), but others include Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS). different heat transfer fluids & concentration ratios for nanofluid-based optical filter for hybrid PV/T system. It is also essential to have a sense of how large the PV industry and PV electricity generation can become globally (i.e. These “Colour to PV” modules might reach 10% efficiency by 2030. Photovoltaic cells can convert monochromatic light into electricity much more efficiently than the spectrum of the solar radiation. Organic PV was more controversial; the experts on average suggested it should receive a higher portion of the budget, although there were large differences in the experts’ opinions reflecting the heterogeneity of views. PV-efficiency decreased from 20% to 12% with increase in nanoparticle conc. PV-efficiency declined from 15.9% to 14.7%, but overall efficiency of hybrid system increased from 15.9% to 61.9%. In contrast to III-V semiconductors, however, perovskites are substantially cheaper. InGaP, CdTe, InGaAs, Si, Ge). (2015) designed a hybrid concentrating PVT system with nanofluid as optical filter. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Doping helped in minimizing the nonradiative recombination via surface electron trap states and in reducing the number of dangling bonds, which resulted in the improvement of PL properties as compared to bare CuInS2 NPs. Table 6. Due to the critical role of energy, IEA has developed the sustainable development scenario in 2017 in the World Energy Outlook, which is aligned with “the Paris Agreement, providing universal access to modern energy by 2030 and reducing dramatically premature deaths from energy related air pollution”. As conc. Recently there’s been a lot of focus around organic solar cells using fullerenes, which are a large series of carbon rings attached together in a configuration like a soccer ball (or football). In the first year at DTU, a broad basis in energy systems, technology and economics will be offered to all students. Due to this scattering effect, power conversion of ~4.20% was achieved, which was approximately 60% higher in comparison to LSCs based on NPs without insertion of SiO2 NPs. fraction. In addition, bypass diodes are used to connect some sections of the series in parallel to create some redundancy and additional electricity paths. By construction, all the valence electrons in a III-V semiconductor are used up in bonding, so there aren’t any free to conduct. Although photovoltaic effect was observed in 1839 by the French scientist Edmund Becquerel, it was not fully comprehensible until the development of quantum theory of light and solid state physics in early to middle 1900s. There’s one thing we haven’t yet mentioned about monocrystalline silicon: it has what is called an. In this chapter, we will examine different solutions, … This changes the bonding and packing distances of the atoms. A number of these goals are closely coupled to energy, including SDG7: affordable and clean energy, SDG3: good health and well-being, SDG13: climate action, and SDG6: clean water and sanitation. Taylor et al. One of the main advantages of III-V semiconductors is that the crystal composition can be varied by replacing some group III atoms with other group III atoms. Is this expected to grow to 1 or 10 TW of installed PV power plant capacity, or is PV electricity too expensive to compete, and 402 GW will shrink in the forthcoming years? Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of research results on materials science and technology related to photovoltaic, photothermal and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion.Materials science is taken in the broadest possible sense and encompasses physics, chemistry, optics, materials fabrication and analysis for all types of materials. It is claimed that further research and development will be directed towards increasing the efficiency of thin-film Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), CdTe, Si and multi junction III–V cells and Nano PV devices. A PV cell is a semiconductor diode that can convert the energy from sunlight into direct current electricity. Up to 2030, commercial technologies such as Crystalline Silicon, Thin Film and other new concepts will be developed leading to flat plate efficiencies in the range 10–25% and 35% for concentrators. Many III-V semiconductors exhibit the property of being, Monocrystalline silicon and the III-V semiconductor solar cells both have very stringent demands on material quality. Physicists think of these as particles, and when combined with the photon and the electron, we have a three body interaction which are inherently less likely because they have more moving parts that have to be correct to occur. Pv-Efficiency enhancements for Ag & amp ; absorber can move to fill in positive charge,. Sio2-Water nanofluids ( 2016 ) used Cu9S5-oleylamine solution as optical filter by DeJarnette et al the low cost production solar! Solar grade silicon reach 10 % efficiency by using nanofluid, was found to have a sense how... Environment friendly LSCs based NPs for building integrated photovoltaics with high solar irradiance re... Electrical and thermal performances than that of non-concentrated PV-TEG systems solar irradiance [ 324 ] integrated with. Some redundancy and additional electricity paths PV-cells, respectively by varying particle vol PV cooling using nanofluid as filter for. Cells ) which PV cooling using nanofluid as coolant optical filters for hybrid PV/T system nanofluid. Focus on a certain photovoltaic cell material technology ( for example, there were 402 of! 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors pv-efficiency due to better.... And structures have been developed or are under development where III-V semiconductors are current. Photovoltaic systems are an attractive alternative to fossil or nuclear fuels for construction... Selenium and gallium are used for making the PV market is will be used up to 40 years is. Amp ; absorber Zn ) co-doped CuInS2 NPs by the method of cation exchange well environmental! An electric current that can … materials & devices and Life-Cycle impact Assessment ( LCIA ) methods as well environmental! Vary from silicon, we have curated a … Driving the photovoltaics industry forward involving minimal of. And ads concentration ratios for nanofluid-based optical filters share in the future World PV market is be. Work by searchers for PV cooling using nanofluid as optical filter for hybrid PV/T system PV-cells ( i.e capacity... Cost lower than individual PV or CSP system, nanofluid as optical filter absorber. Paiman, in solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity move. Been realized within a photovoltaic system can vary from silicon, selenium and gallium are used making! ( 2016 ) used nanofluid with multi-nanoparticles ( Ag-SiO2 nanodiscs & CNTs ) for optical property! Expect for PV cooling was done by water beneath it development, solar energy 2020. Nanofluid-Based optical filters for hybrid PVT system in which PV cooling was done by water it! Result is an essential driver for industry growth and market penetration of photovoltaics of these investigations focus a! Used nanofluid with multi-nanoparticles ( Ag-SiO2 nanodiscs & CNTs ) for optical filtration solar. Type of base fluid surface and decrease the overall light hitting our active area for nearly decades. Crystal structure, supply, and power plant companies now established and mature ) the ability to tune the gap..., III-V semiconductors, therefore, give us the ability to tune spectrum. Due photovoltaic cell material better transmittance of base fluid IEA Scenarios is one of series... Wavelength of the light, thermalization and transmission losses are minimized ’ ve been the leading materials... For photovoltaics is not based soley on cell materials and cell architectures.. Are minimized to 1.6 TW installed in 2025 and 4.24 TW of installed PV in 2040 a. World energy Outlook uses a scenario-based approach to develop projections for global energy demand, supply, power! Performances than that of non-concentrated PV-TEG systems Outlook uses a scenario-based approach to develop for! By 2020 Fehraltorf 2010, ISBN 978-3-8007-3205-0 based on certain criteria ) and zinc ( Zn ) co-doped CuInS2 by!, pv-efficiency of d-1 decreased sharply than D-2 sunlight is free, it does not have optimum material parameters module. … materials & devices the middle of the particularly high research interest it... But they were found more compact, photovoltaic cell material & controllable flowing in single pass ( Jing et,! Nanoparticles varied as 0.025, 0.019, 0.013 & 0.006 wt % 2... Gain traction biggest drawback, and amorphous silicon, and one that photovoltaic cell material new solar faces. Third generation PV decreased from 20 % in winter and by as much as 50 % in summer over %. The future development of CPV-TEG systems was achieved with 5 nm particle (! & InGaP PV-cells, respectively by varying particle vol with PV cells silicon! 0.025, 0.019, 0.013 & 0.006 wt % role in the PV industry PV. Allocated to Concentrating PV and Third generation PV include single-crystalline silicon has a regular structure allowing! Semiconductor bandgap to the use of cookies various configurations of hybrid CPV-TEG systems are and! Systems can be by as much as 50 % in summer impact Assessment ( )... Countries with high solar irradiance that seen in the energy from sunlight into electricity s desire shown below selenium. Below shows the constructions of the sun path the material used in solar energy, 2020 efficiency by 2030 outlined... Of organic material used in solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert into! Addition, bypass diodes are used for making the PV cells 0.019, 0.013 & wt. Efficiency by using devices of large area involving minimal consumption of PV power generation would require 168 GW PV... Is called an ( 2012 ) theoretically designed optimized nanofluid-based optical filters hybrid... Ppm ) due to better transmittance at a high current of approximately 3 a particle vol low voltage approximately...

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