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Previously, NGOs could operate shelters for trafficking victims without government financial support or oversight. Despite political will, law enforcement agencies lack the skills, knowledge, and resources to understand and respond to the evolving complexities of human trafficking. Victims were prosecuted for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking, including prostitution and immigration violations. Two international agreements regard human trafficking as a transnational crime: the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the Palermo Protocol. In one prosecution completed in 2017, the government convicted 62 offenders, including 11 government officials, involved in the trafficking of Rohingya migrants; it sentenced convicted officials to prison terms ranging from 14 to 79 years. Some trafficking victims in the fishing sector had difficulty returning home due to isolated workplaces, unpaid wages, and the lack of legitimate identity documents or safe means to travel. As state participation has grown, the UCR Program has seen an increase in data submissions. In 2017, the government initiated investigations of 26 officials (10 in 2016), initiated prosecution of seven, and convicted 12 officials complicit in trafficking crimes (three convictions in 2016). These options may include connecting callers with emergency shelter, transportation, trauma counselors, local law enforcement, or a range of other services and support. Human trafficking is widespread in South-East Asia and in rural areas of Laos young women and girls are at a high risk of being trapped in the Thai sex trade. Tao Gae – fishing boat owner or fleet owner. Human trafficking is a complex phenomenon fueled by the tremendous growth in the global sex market. As recently as 2015, there were reports of separatist groups in southern Thailand recruiting and using children to commit acts of arson or serve as scouts. The government required all judicial branch officials to report all trafficking-related cases into an integrated case database. ... Group on Statistics on Crime and Criminal Justice and in consultation with the EU Network of National Rapporteurs or Equiva- Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. To increase efficiency in prosecuting trafficking and illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing cases, in March 2018 the attorney general issued guidelines to prosecutors with descriptions of relevant charges and sentencing recommendations. Yet despite growing evidence that climate change increasingly drives forced migration, the link with human trafficking remains relatively unexplored. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Human Trafficking Statistics. In addition, NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce the application of minimum wages in sectors with a minimum wage and lacked legislation to require minimum wages in other sectors, especially in those sectors with high employment of migrant workers. In early 2018, the Royal Thai Police (RTP) established the Thailand Anti-Trafficking in Persons Task Force (TATIP), composed of law enforcement, social workers, and NGOs, to increase coordination of sex and labor trafficking law enforcement efforts. Participants were appointed to mobile response teams that will advise multidisciplinary teams in complex cases. Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019. However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. Labor trafficking victims are exploited in commercial fishing and related industries, the poultry industry, manufacturing, agriculture, and domestic work, or forced into street begging. Some remain at sea for several years, are paid very little or irregularly, work as much as 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and are reportedly threatened, physically beaten, drugged to work longer, and even killed for becoming ill, attempting to escape, or disobeying orders. The government reported investigating significantly fewer cases of labor trafficking in the fishing industry in 2017; it investigated seven cases in 2017 (43 in 2016). Corruption continues to undermine anti-trafficking efforts. The specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions continued to complete trafficking investigations and prosecutions more quickly than in previous reporting periods; courts completed the majority of cases heard in 2017 within six months. The Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting 450 victims in government shelters (561 in 2016), including 360 identified in 2017 and 90 identified in 2016, of which 132 were Thai and 228 were foreign victims. Others were in the recovery period, chose not to work, were too young to work, or were receiving educational training in shelters. The government's criminal defamation laws allowed companies to pursue criminal charges against potential victims during the reporting period; additionally, labor inspectors could be held personally liable for claims of abuse of power, which could be misused and limit their ability or willingness to perform their work. The government identified 455 victims in 2017 (824 in 2016), including 336 sex trafficking victims (335 in 2016) and 119 labor trafficking victims (489 in 2016). According to some estimates, human trafficking is now one of the world’s most lucrative organized crimes, generating more than $150 billion a year. Dear Fellow Ohioans, About 20 million people worldwide fall victim to human trafficking each year, according to estimates. With the transnational nature of human trafficking, both international and regional regimes encourage governments to share information, coordinate policies and efforts to criminalize trafficking offenses, provide mutual legal assistance, protect victims, and prosecute offenders. Given the low literacy rate and diversity of languages among at-risk persons, however, this information remained inaccessible to many vulnerable non-Thai speakers. Thailand figures prominently in human traffickers' maps as a preferred destination in Southeast Asia, government data shows. ART TEXTURE: ISTOCK / PHONGPHAN5922; DESIFOTO The National Human Trafficking Hotline maintains one of the most extensive data sets on the issue of human trafficking in the United States. Key concepts in a nutshell. At the subregional level, the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking also closely follows the Palermo Protocol framework and has led to several bilateral agreements aimed at greater cooperation between states in the Greater Mekong region. Police utilized DNA testing to determine the relationship between child victims of forced begging and the adults accompanying them, and the government prosecuted parents from neighboring countries who brought their children to Thailand more than once to engage in begging. The government continued to refer victims to the 76 short-stay shelters or the nine long-term regional trafficking shelters operated by MSDHS, where they had access to counseling, legal assistance, medical care, civil compensation, financial aid, witness protection, education or vocational trainings, and employment. The decision by Thailand … Thailand has come under fire in recent years for its ties to human trafficking, particularly in the seafood industry. TATIP included teams of first responders dedicated to screening potential victims, gathering evidence, conducting operations, interrogating subjects, and analyzing digital evidence. The scourge of human trafficking, sometimes called “modern slavery,” affects some 40 million men, women, and children trapped in a horrendous web of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and coerced marriage (ILO and Walk Free Foundation 2017). 2551 (2008), informally referred to as the Anti-Trafficking Act. China, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand are destinations from neighboring countries. Most of the victims were from Myanmar. However, in some cases, first responders, prosecutors, and judges did not sufficiently examine evidence or properly interpret trafficking laws, especially for labor trafficking. Report. The government amended the Human Trafficking Criminal Procedures Act to allow judges to award compensation or restitution to victims, including in the absence of a victim request for these funds. Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. Some NGOs asserted multidisciplinary teams improved capacity to identify victims using a victim-centered approach and were effective in some regions during the reporting period; however, effective implementation of identification procedures was less consistent outside urban areas. The discovery of mass graves of trafficking victims along the border between Malaysia and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, according to news reports. “The United States and Thailand have a robust and enduring cooperation on law enforcement, protection of victims and prevention of trafficking.” This is not a UNHCR publication. Summary of Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons Progress Report 2015 (January – March 2016) Summary of Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons Report 2015. Last Updated: Friday, 15 January 2021, 09:32 GMT, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Survivors of trafficking / Persons at risk of trafficking. DGMM issued its first annual report on trafficking and continued to publish annual data reports on its website for 2013-2017; however, observers reported the government did not share detailed statistics on a regular basis and OSCE reported discrepancies in the statistics of the different databases managed by various state institutions, such as the Ministry of Interior, MOJ, and courts. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. These two charts show the human trafficking arrest and conviction totals reported by each agency, from 2016 - 2018. Critical gaps in Thailand's labor laws preventing migrant workers from forming labor unions may have contributed to exploitation. Some brokers charge substantial fees or collaborate with corrupt law enforcement officials, and some Thai and migrant workers incur significant debts to obtain employment and are subjected to debt bondage. Such policies may have prevented victims, advocates, and labor inspectors from feeling empowered to report abuse. Drought-affected migrants have been smuggled from Cambodia into Thailand (Calma 2017; Tesfay 2015). CCCIF, the Department of Fisheries, DLPW, and other relevant agencies developed a manual on SOPs for labor inspections to be conducted after the government reauthorizes Thai vessels to operate outside Thai waters. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. In an effort to improve the quality of trafficking prosecutions across the country, the government operated a sub-unit within the OAG trafficking division to provide guidance and mentoring for provincial law enforcement, prosecutors, and other court officials. The government developed and launched a video shown on flights entering Thailand discouraging sex tourism. Following the completion of the horizontal evaluation of the National Action Plan, in Budget 2018, the Government of Canada announced $14.51 million over five years, beginning in 2018-2019, and $2.89 million per year ongoing, to establish a National Human Trafficking Hotline. The government demonstrated increasing efforts by prosecuting and convicting more traffickers, and decreasing prosecution time for trafficking cases through the use of specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions. Of the 10 officials initially investigated in 2016, four remained under investigation, the office of the public sector anti-corruption commission referred three for prosecution, and the government chose not to pursue charges against three. This requires active participation and partnership between government and civil society groups, the private sector, and international foundations. The government did not report how many of these violations had direct ties to trafficking. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. Some of those victims are right here in Ohio, and among them are the most innocent members of society — children. and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, accord - ing to news reports. During 2012–14, more than 60 percent of the 7,800 identified victims were trafficked for sexual exploitation. They also arise from nonmilitary dangers such as climate change, natural disasters, infectious diseases, and transnational crimes. The 2008 anti-trafficking law, as amended, criminalized sex and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to 12 years imprisonment and a maximum fine of 1.2 million baht ($36,810) for offenses involving an adult victim, and up to 20 years imprisonment and 2 million baht ($61,350) for those involving a child victim. Similarly, there must be greater effort to address the needs of victims. The Ministry of Tourism distributed more than 315,000 brochures discouraging sex tourism to businesses and tourism professionals and organized trainings for 800 local government officials, tourism sector workers, students, youth, and civil society organizations on prevention of child sexual exploitation in the tourism industry. MSDHS established a sub-unit under its anti-trafficking division to provide victims legal assistance and file compensation claims. The battle has been raging on for every ASEAN country in the region, and while some governments have been more successful than others, every ASEAN member continues to face challenges. Globally, in 2019, there were only a total of 11,841 prosecutions (down from 11,096 in 2018) and 9,548 convictions (up from 7,481 in 2018). A common critique of anti-trafficking regimes is that most efforts have focused on criminalizing and prosecuting traffickers, as opposed to preventing the crime and protecting its victims. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) drafted legislation to more clearly define forced labor in Thai law and create additional protections for victims; in 2018 the government sought input from the public on this draft law. The core of the anti-trafficking regimes is protection of borders by controlling the flow of illegal migration. The government held a series of workshops in early 2018 to review and update screening questions, procedures, and investigative techniques to improve the success of prosecutions. The United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in its 2018 U.S. Prosecutors also worked with NGOs to prepare victims to provide testimony. The government operated three post-arrival centers to assist migrant workers entering Thailand through these formal channels, as well as 10 migrant workers assistance centers; these centers assisted 345,204 workers in 2017 (105,647 in August 2016 to February 2017) by providing resources in multiple languages, including for trafficking awareness, and assisting the migrant workers to register with the government. It remains largely a hidden crime, since victims are reluctant to seek help for fear of intimidation and reprisals. Fifty-one percent of victims in East Asia were women, and children comprised nearly a third, according to the UNODC report. 2017. The United Nations has reported that armed groups in the Philippines, including Moro rebels and communists, recruit children, at times through force, for combat and noncombat roles. The resulting dataset is the largest of its kind globally, with information on over 108,000 individual cases of human trafficking visualized throughout the site, including through an interactive global map. The Thailand Anti-Trafficking in Persons Task Force (TATIP), which specialized in investigating complex cases and comprised law enforcement, social workers, and NGOs, investigated 29 cases in 2018, resulting in the prosecution of 69 offenders. The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 136,000 people living in modern slavery in the United Kingdom (UK) on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.1 victims for every thousand people in the country. The government increased efforts to protect victims but identified significantly fewer trafficking victims, particularly of labor trafficking, than in the previous reporting period. The Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) organized training for 335 law enforcement officers on forced labor, emphasizing non-physical indicators of trafficking. Typhoons and other natural disasters are becoming more intense and frequent in Southeast Asia because of climate change, adding to the flow of potential victims, including children who are orphaned or separated from their families. Still, huge challenges remain, notably the serious lack of accurate and reliable information on the scale and scope of trafficking, which makes it difficult to measure the effectiveness of anti-trafficking policies. Southeast Asia’s refugees and displaced people are victimized by human traffickers, but the crime usually goes unreported. Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian men and boys are subject to forced labor on Thai and foreign-owned fishing boats. UK trafficking statistics. Sex Slaves THAILAND - Human Trafficking of 21st Century (Extraordinary Documentary) Yavuztuyluoglu. 2018. Drugs 3. Countries such as Cambodia and Thailand have been identified as major suppliers of pornographic material. Officials identified fewer victims of forced labor and investigated fewer forced labor cases compared to the previous reporting period. Opinions expressed in articles and other materials are those of the authors; they do not necessarily reflect IMF policy. Some government officials profit from bribes and direct involvement in the extortion and exploitation of migrants. The country’s Karen, Shan, Akha, and Lahu women are trafficked for sexual exploitation in Thailand, while Kachin women are sold as brides in China. The government provided 4.3 million baht ($130,670) for witness protection services for 52 witnesses in trafficking cases in 2017, compared to 2.9 million baht ($88,960) for 254 witnesses in 2016. In addition, from January through March 2018, it initiated criminal investigations of 20 officials, prosecuted eight, and convicted five. 2017. Human trafficking has surpassed the illegal sale of arms; Trafficking will surpass the illegal sale of drugs in the next few years; Drugs are used once and they are gone. Despite reports of continued forced labor in Thailand, the government reported investigating fewer cases; authorities investigated 47 forced labor cases in 2017 (83 in 2016) and 16 in January through March 2018. Thailand rescued a record 1,807 trafficking victims last year, up from 622 in 2018, the government said this month.
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